Monday, January 20, 2020
Comparison of BMW and Mercedes Benz Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The most popular car of this century are the Mercedes Benz and the BMW. Many different cars in the world dont campare to at least half of what a Mercedes Benz and a BMW are. Two specific cars are the 2000 BMW M 2-door Coupe 3.2L, 2000 BMW X5 sports activity vehicle 4-door sport utility 4.4L, 2000 Mercedes-Benz CLK 430 2- door Coupe 4.3L, and the 2000 Mercedes-Benz SLK 230 Kompressor 2-door convertible 2.3L. In this report I will be tlaking about these specific types of Mercedes-Benz and BMW. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The Bmw X5 is a 4- door, 5 passenger sport utility available in one trim only. Th X5 is quipped with a standard 4.4-liter, V8, 282-horsepower engine that consumes 13-mpg in the city and 17-mpg on the highway. A 5-speed automatic transmission with overdrive is standard. The X5 is new for the year 2000. Sophisticated powertrain, fully equipped, good driving pleasure, roomy interior, and gives an interesting performance. It is a complex machine, unproven quality of assembly, high priced, limited initial availability. The price for the X5 is $49, 400, $44,620 for the dealer invoice, and $570 for the destination charges. Its competetor is the 2002 Cadillac Escalade 4-door sport utility 6.0L all wheel drive, the 2001 GMC Yukon XL Denali 4-door sport utility 6.0L all wheel drive, the 2001 Lincoln Navigator 4-door utility 5.4l4 wheel drve, the 2000 Toyota Land Cruiser 4-door sport utility 4.7L 4 wheel drive, the 2001 Merc...
Saturday, January 11, 2020
Abortion is one of the most controversial topics of all times. The definition most people associate with abortion is the termination of unwanted pregnancy. In their essay, Ã¢â¬Å"The Wrong of AbortionÃ¢â¬ , Patrick Lee and Robert P. George argue that intentional abortion is unjust and therefore objectively immoral no matter the circumstances. Also, they argue that Ã¢â¬Å"the burden of carrying the baby is significantly less than the harm the baby would suffer by being killed; the mother and father have a special responsibility to the child; it follows that intentional abortion (even in few cases where the babyÃ¢â¬â¢s death is an unintended but foreseen side effect) is unjust Ã¢â¬ (24). I am personally in between pro-life and pro-choice. On the one hand, I agree with their argument in that the mother and the father are responsible for their baby and that abortion should not be a choice. However, I disagree with the part where they say that abortion is unjust even if the baby (fetus) may have a defect. Yet, I believe that the choice of abortion is immoral if women use it as their last resort- contraceptive purposes, but I think that abortion should be allowed if the baby (fetus), which is still in the womb, is predicted to have a side effect such as deformation or diseases like DownÃ¢â¬â¢s syndrome. For example, if I were to bear a child and I find out later on that my baby has DownÃ¢â¬â¢s syndrome; then, in this case, I will choose to get aborted, not for selfish reasons, but because this defect may hurt my baby in the long run. Besides, my baby is the one that has to live with it for the rest of his/her life and it will definitely have a big effect on them in the future. In short, I am pro-life in most cases, especially if women do not take responsibility for their actions, but I am pro-choice if and only if there are side effects with the baby or the mother that might endanger their lives and of course, abortion is permissible in case of incest and rape. Lee and George claim that human embryos (fetuses) are complete human beings that have not fully developed to its mature stage; therefore, a human being is what is killed in abortion. I agree completely that the fetus, or the human embryo, is in fact a living being. Moreover, human embryo is the Ã¢â¬Å"sameÃ¢â¬ as human beings except, the difference between these two is that the embryo is not a full human person because the fetus is not fully developed yet. Every new life, whether it be animal or human, begins at conception. With this being said, no matter what the circumstances of conception, no matter how far along in the pregnancy, abortion, in my opinion, always ends the life of an individual human being. Abortion destroys the lives of helpless and innocent babies that have not done anything wrong. Everyone is raised knowing the difference between right and wrong. Murder is wrong, so why is not abortion? Defenders of abortion argue that it is not murder if the child is unborn. So, why is it that if an infant is destroyed a month before the birth, there is no problem, but if killed a month after birth, it is considered as inhumane murder? Lee and George support their argument by providing three important facts that differentiate a human embryo is, in fact, a human being. First, they say that sex cells and somatic cells are part of a larger organism while the human embryo is a complete or whole organism, though immature (14). Secondly, they say that the embryo is human and has all the characteristics of a human being but the sex and somatic cells are genetically and functionally different because they cannot develop separately while the embryo can. Last but not least, they claim that embryo develops all of the organs and organ systems that are necessary to turn themselves into a mature human being. Above all, the human embryo, from conception onward, is fully programmed actively to develop himself or herself to the mature stage of a human being, unless prevented by disease or violence (14). With these reasons, it can be said that abortion results in the death of a human being. As a result, abortion is murder since the fetus being destroyed is breathing, has a human form, and has feelings. Carol Everett, who is a former abortionist, once said at the conference Meet the Abortion Providers, Ã¢â¬Å"the product abortion, is skillfully marketed and sold to the women at a crisis time in her life. She buys the product, finds it defective and wants to return it for a refund, but it is too late. Ã¢â¬ In most cases, abortion is intentional killing. Most women use aborting as an easy Ã¢â¬Å"way outÃ¢â¬ because they want to avoid in becoming a parent. Parents do have a responsibility to make sacrifices for their children, even if they have not voluntary assumed such responsibilities, or given their consent to the personal relationship with the child- this is the authorsÃ¢â¬â¢ claim (22). I completely agree with their claim because a person should accept the consequences of risks that one knowingly and willingly takes. I believe that it is common sense that both women and men should know that contraceptives are not 100 percent effective; for this reason, if they are willingly having sexual intercourse, then they should know that they are taking the risk in possibly becoming pregnant. Therefore, a woman who becomes pregnant should accept her pregnancy as the consequence of taking the risk involved in sexual intercourse. This means that the woman has a duty or a responsibility of taking care for her child regardless if she wanted the baby or not. Since we have special responsibilities to those with whom we are closely untied, it follows that we in fact do have a special responsibility to our children anterior to our having voluntarily assumed such responsibility or consented to the relationshipÃ¢â¬ (23). Abortion is clearly used to avoid responsibility and the authors call this unjust or intentional killing. Nevertheless, while the authors argue that abortion is intentional killing most of the tim e, they also claim that causing death as a side effect is morally permissible. For example, if the pregnant woman has cancer in her uterus that will surely endanger the womanÃ¢â¬â¢s life, then Lee and George claim that, in this case, it can be morally right to remove the cancer with the baby still in her womb, even if the baby (fetus) dies as a result. They consider the babyÃ¢â¬â¢s death as a side effect as well as the ending of the pregnancy itself but they claim that the motherÃ¢â¬â¢s life is more important. This type of abortion is known as indirect or non-intentional killing (21). However, they also assert that not every death that is caused because of side effects is right. For instance, if the mother or the father have a bad habit of smoking when they know for a fact that this will endanger the babyÃ¢â¬â¢s (fetus) development, and for this reason, the woman wants to get an abortion because they find out that their baby has a defect- this choice she is making is an unjust act since she could have avoided it but instead, did not do anything to change; therefore, this is the consequence they have to face. It was immoral for them to continue with their actions when they know this will or might cause harm to their child. The act that would cause the childÃ¢â¬â¢s death would avoid harm to the parent but cause a significantly worse harm to his child (21). All in all, the parents have a special responsibility to the child even if they did not want or were not expecting a baby in the first place, they should act responsibly in virtue of being their biological parents. I, however, only partially agree with their argument mentioned above. I agree completely in that abortion should be performed if the woman has a disease that will endanger her life as well as the babyÃ¢â¬â¢s. Nonetheless, in the second example, although it was their fault for causing their child to not develop properly, I think that the parents should be given the choice to perform abortion or to keep their child. Like I mentioned in the beginning, if I were to have a child that is deformed or is mentally unstable, then I would get an abortion even if it is 100 percent my fault. I want my baby to be happy, and I know for a fact that my baby might not be happy in the future because of their defect and I will never forgive myself because my child does not deserve to go through hardship because of the actions that IÃ¢â¬â¢ve done. For this reason, I would not call it unjust killing in this case. After critically analyzing Lee and GeorgeÃ¢â¬â¢s argument, I come to a conclusion that it is very difficult to draw a line between keeping oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life or being responsible for oneÃ¢â¬â¢s actions. On the one hand, if the woman voluntarily put herself into a situation where it might bring her the existence of a person, then in this case no matter what, she is held responsible and accountable for her actions since to make that Ã¢â¬Ëchoice' after a pregnancy is underway, merely as a matter of birth control, is an immoral act. So, abortion is morally wrong since the mother had sexual intercourse of her own free will. On the other hand, the situation becomes complicated when one has to choose whether it is better to get an abortion if there is something wrong with the baby due to the parentÃ¢â¬â¢s actions. Would one save the life or choose to abort although this was also their responsibility? With all my aforementioned reasons, I am still in between pro-life and pro-choice because I believe that abortion can be permissible depending on the situation.
Friday, January 3, 2020
Molarity is a unit in chemistry that quantifies the concentration of a solution by measuring moles of solute per liter of solution. The concept of molarity can be tough to grasp, but with enough practice, youll be converting mass to moles in no time. Use this example molarity calculation of a sugar solution to practice. The sugar (the solute) is dissolved in water (the solvent). Calculating Molarity Example Problem In this problem, a four gram sugar cube (sucrose: C12H22O11) is dissolved in a 350-milliliter cup of hot water. Find the molarity of the sugar solution. Start with the equation for molarity: M (molarity) m/V m: number of moles of soluteV: volume of solvent (Liters) Then, use the equation and follow these steps to calculate molarity. Step 1: Determine Moles of Solute The first step in calculating molarity is to determine the number of moles in four grams of solute (sucrose) by finding the atomic mass of each atom in the solution. This can be done using the periodic table. The chemical formula for sucrose is C12H22O11: 12 carbon, 22 hydrogen, and 11 oxygen. You will need to multiply the atomic mass of each atom by the number of atoms of that element in a solution. For sucrose, multiply the mass of hydrogen (which is about 1) by the number of hydrogen atoms (22) in sucrose. You may need to use more significant figures for the atomic masses for your calculations, but for this example, only 1 significant figure was given for the mass of sugar, so one significant figure for atomic mass is used. Once you have the product of each atom, add together the values to get the total grams per mole of sucrose. See the calculation below. C12H22O11 (12)(12) (1)(22) (16)(11)C12H22O11 144 22 176C12H22O11 342 g/mol To get the number of moles in a specific mass of solution, divide the mass in grams by the number of grams per mole in the sample. See below. 4 g/(342 g/mol) 0.0117 mol Step 2: Determine the Volume of Solution in Liters In the end, you need the volume of both the solution and the solvent, not one or the other. Often, however, the amount of solute dissolved in a solution doesnt change the volume of the solution enough to affect your final answer, so you can simply use the volume of solvent. Exceptions to this are often made clear in a problems instructions. For this example, just convert milliliters of water to liters. 350 ml x (1L/1000 ml) 0.350 L Step 3: Determine the Molarity of the Solution The third and final step is to plug the values you have obtained in steps one and two into the molarity equation. Plug 0.0117 mol in for m and 0.350 in for V. M m/VM 0.0117 mol/0.350 LM 0.033 mol/L Answer The molarity of the sugar solution is 0.033 mol/L. Tips for Success Be sure to use the same number of significant figures, which you should have obtained from the period table, throughout your calculation. Not doing so can give you an incorrect or imprecise answer. When in doubt, use the number of significant figures provided to you in the problem in the mass of solute. Keep in mind that not every solution is comprised of only one substance. For solutions made by mixing two or more liquids, finding the correct volume of solution is particularly important. You cant always just add together the volumes of each to get the final volume. If you mix alcohol and water, for example, the final volume will be less than the sum of the volumes of alcohol and water. The concept of miscibility comes into play here and in examples like it.
Thursday, December 26, 2019
Remebering For some people roller coaster ride are exciting but for me it is the total opposite. IÃ¢â¬â¢m more traumatism by Roller Coaster, I guess I have a couple of phobias one is the fear of height which is called Acrophobia, the doctors have not yet name the fear of roller coasters. It started when I was a child about the age of eight. Every summer going on mini family vacations to the amusement parks consist of Cedar Point, Geauga Lake and Kings Island. How excited my sisters and I use to get year after year about our mini vacation. We never slept the night before, because the excitement. We talked about the best rides and what rides we would be our first. Of course for them it would be the roller coaster first year after year. Finally the sun was peaking through our bedroom window, I sprung out of bed running from room to room wakening up everyone in the house with excitement. As we begin to prepare for our journey, the talk was in the air about the roller coasters, how high is this one, how long is that one. Thinking to myself Ã¢â¬Å"shout up already about these roller coastersÃ¢â¬ . Loading up the car the conversation turn to, what was the first ride of the day? This was nothing unusually; they always rode the roller coaster first. For myself it meant I had to wait patiently by the roller coaster for them to climb the long, high stairs and wait in line to ride for two minutes. The waited, for what seem like hours to me.
Wednesday, December 18, 2019
Since starting college in 2014 I have changed my major three times. I started out knowing exactly what I wanted to do as a career. I never wanted to merely work or have a job, IÃ¢â¬â¢ve always been someone who wanted to enjoy what I do regardless of the challenges or level of difficulty. I started out as a Biology major hoping to go into medical school, everything was set and I enjoyed all the classes I was taking until my second semester when I started chemistry. Technically I did fine, but the class was heavily curved which discouraged me. I also wanted a way to incorporate a degree in Spanish with my medical degree but I was also always interested in political science. So, that next term, because I was so discouraged, I switched majoring in both Political Science and Spanish. I was extremely excited about that choice however I never took any courses in Political Science because that brings us to this current semester when I came to UTC switching again to Psychology. I had all my classes set, and I met with my advisor during transfer orientation, but when I came home, I wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t really happy with my choice or the job outlook. What brought me to Psychology was a test on UTCÃ¢â¬â¢s career and counseling webpage. I took that test and many results came up for Psychology. One of the results, Neuropsychology really made me excited because I thought that I could incorporate my Psychology degree with the science aspect that I like. I thought about it for a while and I talked it throughShow MoreRelatedMy Career As A Career800 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesbusiness owner lay a mystery in time. As I approach my time to attend college, I must choose what exactly I would study, so I could form a career out of it. In my seventeen years of life so far, I have had three predominant career choices: a neurologist, a writer, or a chemist. IÃ¢â¬â¢ve always wanted to be a physician of some sorts. This aspiration began in the very beginning of my life. 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Tuesday, December 10, 2019
Yes Plastic Industries Inc should enter the home market because this market is new and untapped. Also it is 5 times higher than their current market. However a thorough Market Research needs to conducted before entering the home market which will be a reality check toÃ its profitability. When entering the home market first of all the Company should try to create positive attitude on the general public over theÃ visibility of the product sinceÃ it is observed in the homeÃ market that the general public imageÃ of plastic pipes isÃ that they areÃ easily breakable and would notÃ last as long as conventional pipe. Hence in order to solve this specific challenge the company should perform image building work through convincing the middle man. One of the best ways to win the market is through convincing the middle man to take and display the product in the eye caching location on the retail shop. We will write a custom essay sample on Plastic Industry or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page As a result of this the plastics industries Inc. Can create positive attitude regarding the product. Also the advantage that Plastics Inc. Can highlight to the public is the fact that the price of plastic pipe is less than the metal one, hence the company can get acceptance in the home market through providing product at a lower price through penetration pricing strategy. The company can also set a low initial price in order to penetrate the market quickly to attract a large number of buyers and win a large market share. Thus looking at the various positive sides for Plastics Inc. It should definitely try to enter the home market.
Monday, December 2, 2019
Introduction People have different ways of interpreting the events they come across in their daily life. School and family circumstances, encounters at the workplaces, clubs, religions, friends, society, and occupations influence most of the interpretations. Employment is one of the elements that influence peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s life.Advertising We will write a custom case study sample on Unitarist and Pluralist Managerial Perspectives specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Hence, management and nature of employment are some of the issues that trigger heated debates. Most of these debates are based on principles and postulations that people use as reference points, a theoretical device first used by Alan Fox in 1974 as a way of explaining how people hold different opinions towards various issues. It is possible for two people to look at a common issue but interpret it in two different ways. People have two different perspectives of interpretin g managerial practices that take place at workplaces. The two perspectives are unitarist and pluralist perspectives. The unitarist perspective holds that workplace conflicts are avoidable. According to unitarists, managers may avoid workplace conflicts by bringing all the stakeholders together and making sure that an organisation is managed from a single source of power. On the other hand, pluralists hold that workplace conflicts are inevitable. According to pluralists, managers ought to convert the conflict into profitable initiative rather than criticising it. This paper aims at analysing the unitarist and pluralist managerial perspectives. Besides, the writer will decide on the best perspective based on the findings of the analysis. Unitarism Unitarists base their arguments on postulations that workplace conflict is an avoidable feature of relationships between employees and their managers. They claim that as long as managers continue interacting with employees, they are likely t o quarrel.Advertising Looking for case study on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More According to unitarists, both managers and employees share a common interest of making sure that their organisation grows steadily, and thus when a crisis occurs within the organisation, it would not lead to insolvency of the organisation (Ross Bamber 2009). Hence, the conflict that emerges between the parties is a result of personality muddle, poor communication, poor promotion practices, or inappropriate recruitment. Unitarists hold that to avoid such conflicts, the management team ought to identify the actions that might lead to conflicts and avoid implementing them. The management has the duty to conduct a free and fair promotion and recruitment exercise, come up with quality communication systems that are capable of showing the employees where their interests fall, and deal with people susceptible to personality disorders (Bacon Blyton 2007). Unitarists position on employee management draws from a number of theories. One of the theories is the theory of scientific management devised by Taylor (Ross Bamber 2009). The theory holds that for managers to come up with productive employee management strategies, they have to start by assuming that the employees are likely to avoid work whenever they get a chance, they have limited knowledge about the work, and are prone to pursuing personal interests. Therefore, to address these problems, the managers ought to come up with rigid and direct mechanisms that would help to control all the activities the employees undertake. The management has the duty to portray rational leadership during the recruitment process and when instructing employees. According to the unitarists, organisations ought to have a single source of authority. All instructions ought to come from the management team (Ross Bamber 2009). Managers are supposed to treat employees in a manner th at tries to suppress internal conflict over power by ensuring that it does not allocate powers to individual employees.Advertising We will write a custom case study sample on Unitarist and Pluralist Managerial Perspectives specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Another theory from which unitarists draw their position regarding employee management is the human relations theory. They believe that for an organisation to curb organisational tension, it has to make sure that it establishes a working environment that promotes self-fulfilment. Workers are qualitatively different from all other elements of production (Ross Bamber 2009). Therefore, whenever workers are deprived the opportunity to make decisions in the organisation, the unitarists believe that they will definitely look for ways to resist the management system that enforces these conditions. Organisations need to handle their employees with great care since they are the most cri tical resource in production. The management has the duty to design workplace relations in ways that promote self-satisfaction within the employees. The managers need to understand that the employees have the right to present their opinions on how they would like to be governed (Bacon Blyton 2007). Moreover, they are required to work on employee development as a way to show that they are committed to improving the wellbeing of all employees. In whichever way, the ultimate goal of this managerial approach is to curb internal conflicts by promoting self-satisfaction through involving the employees in running the organisation. Unitarists do not believe in the role of trade unions in the organisations (Dzimbiri 2008). According to them, trade unions are illegal interruptions to management objectives. Trade unions tend to neutralise the power of organisational leaders in making all the crucial decisions in an organisation. They champion for the employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ interests and makes sure that leaders address the interests. In a way, there appears to be a second source of authority within an organisation.Advertising Looking for case study on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Unitarists believe that this second source of authority, which is the trade union, is to blame for tension that arises between employees and managers. They make it hard for an organisation to solve internal differences harmoniously. Apart from the scientific management and the human relations theories, the Unitarists draw their inspirations from the human resource management theory. The management theory holds that, for an organisation to surmount tension it has to foster a psychological contract rooted on cooperation. Unitarists believe that the forces that bring together the managers and the employees are much stronger than the forces that draw them apart (Ross Bamber 2009). Hence, the management ought to work on the forces that unite it with the employees by establishing a working environment that promotes autonomy. The management needs to treat the issue of workplace relations as a hole. In a bid to encourage cooperation between the management and employees, the management need s to create a corporate culture that brings parties together, use an insidious and strong leadership style, and have a clear revelation of the organisational goals. Workplace social classes are a major hindrance to organisational success. They lead to the breakdown of communication across the different departments. Besides, the social classes lead to regular conflicts due to contradicting interests (Bacon Blyton 2007). Unitarists maintain that for an organisation to succeed, it has to have a management system that discourages establishment of social classes, establishes open communication, and champions for the interests of all parties to the organisation. Such a system is achievable by encouraging teamwork within the organisation. Teamwork promotes cooperation between employees, therefore, avoiding chances of conflict of interest. Besides teamwork, conducting employee performance appraisal would go a long way to encourage cooperation between employees. Pluralism Pluralists hold th at conflicts at workplaces are inevitable, which contradicts the unitaristsÃ¢â¬â¢ position who believes that it is possible for institutions to circumvent conflict at workplaces. Pluralists perceive business organisations as intricate social constructions that comprise of groups of people with conflicting interests. Employees and the management form part of these groups (Giles 1998). Based on the nature of the organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s system, employees and management are seen to pledge to different objectives and values. Based on this perspective, pluralists believe that it is hard to do away with different sources of power within a business institution. For this reason, organisations cannot overcome conflicts. By acknowledging that organisations are incapable of overcoming conflicts, the pluralists consider conflict to be of significant benefit to an organisation (Giles 1998). It acts as the conduit through which employees present their problems. Moreover, they posit that whenever t he management senses that conflict might erupt in an organisation, they work towards coming up with innovative methods that would turn the conflict into a productive initiative. Pluralists assert that learning that trade unions and shop stewards are likely to cause trouble in an organisation leaves the management at a better position to address the issues of employee relations in a holistic manner. Incidentally, workplace conflict does not only help the management to come up with strategies for institutionalising employment regulations but to also promote a level ground for all parties since employees are able to stand their ground when negotiating on contract terms (Bacon Storey 2000). This assertion underlines the reason why pluralists advocate for trade unions to act on behalf of the employees when bargaining for stable working conditions. Pluralists draw their inspirations from the systems theory devised by Dunlop in 1958. The theory treats industrial relations as constituents of a wider social system (Kessler Purcell 2003). They believe that for an organisation to succeed there has to be numerous leaders or lines of command to make sure that one leader does not pursue personal interests at the expense of others. Unlike the unitarists who do not see the role of trade unions in organisations, pluralists believe that trade unions play a significant role in bringing sanity into an organisation. According to pluralists, organisations are more susceptible to conflicts than harmony. Hence, it is illogical to claim that trade unions are the root cause of conflict witnessed in organisations (Kessler Purcell 2003). The pluralist theory holds that the workplaces are made up of different sets of attitudes, values, behaviours, and beliefs. Hence, it is hard for any organisation to bring all the stakeholders together and share common interests and values (Kessler Purcell 2003). For the management to bring the employees together, it requires to go through the heavy task of convincing them on the need for coming together. Since the different employees have different interests, the management ought not to run away from conflicts. Instead, it needs to embrace workplace conflicts and look for ways to turn the conflicts into productive undertakings. Pluralists call upon the management to institute industrial relations and select skilled personnel to advice it on how to address industrial matters, rather than intimidating the trade unionÃ¢â¬â¢s personnel. Pluralists maintain that the management has the duty to promote pluralism and give all parties in the organisation an opportunity to participate in making decisions on matters affecting the organisation (Ackers 2002). In a bid to achieve this goal, managers ought to understand that employees are not the cause of conflict witnessed in organisations, but they show the diversity in industrial relations. Therefore, to harness this diversity and use it productively, managers need to embrace conflictin g opinions. The opinions might be rich in novel operation methods, therefore, helping the organisation to grow its performance. A pluralistic managerial perspective occasionally embraces a balancing archetype. Pluralists view business organisations as plural societies that hold numerous related but separate goals and interests, which the managers ought to establish some form of equilibrium to maintain them. In case one of the interests dominates the others, an organisation is likely to face a crisis (Ackers 2002). Pluralists emphasise on the need for striking an even-handed balance between the different interests in a business organisation to circumvent negative results. Overlooking some interests and addressing others might lead to the demoralisation of employees whose interests are overlooked. Such employees would stop being productive subjecting the organisation to retarded growth (Ackers 2002). In a bid to ensure that all employees commit themselves to organisational goal, plura lists claim that management and employees need to compromise on some of their interests to reach a common ground where they would be able to work on the interests that are feasible and within the organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s budget. According to the pluralist managerial perspective, the management can and should play a central role in coming up with minimum standards and designing other policies to rectify the imbalance in the bargaining power and foster equity. Employment is not enough (Singh Loncar 2010). Managers ought to ensure that employees enjoy quality working conditions and employment security. Besides, pluralists maintain that the management needs to address both work and non-work related needs of their employees. It needs to give employees the power to make decisions at their workplaces, which would facilitate in avoiding conflicts, as employees would agree with their colleagues on policies to adopt. The pluralistic approach does not view the role of managers as to implement or ganisational policies. Instead, it views managers as the link between the organisation and the employees (Singh Loncar 2010). Rather than imposing policies on employees, managers are supposed to help in reconciling the competing parties within an organisation. Besides, they are supposed to help in aligning the employee interests with the organisational goals. The best perspective The assumption that workplace conflict is avoidable, as the unitarists believe is not true. Unitarists teach that organisations need to have a common interest and a single focus of loyalty. Nevertheless, this scenario is not the reality in many organisations. Different employees and organisational leaders hold different opinions and have competing interests (Gennard Judge 2002). Consequently, it is hard for any organisation to circumvent workplace conflicts. Since it is hard for organisational leaders to do away with competition within the organisation, they need to look for ways of exploiting the competi tion in a profitable way. The pluralist managerial perspective offers the best solution for dealing with contemporary organisations. In the modern organisations, the workforce comprises of people with different cultural backgrounds. This diversity makes it hard for employees to share common interests. In a bid to achieve organisational growth, the management has to have knowledge on how to motivate the diverse workforce. Besides, it has to have clear knowledge of the diverse interests held by the workforce and work on modalities to harmonise them. Unitarists claim that trade unions are the main cause of conflict in organisations and that to avoid conflicts; organisations need to eliminate trade unions. However, trade unions are not accountable for workplace conflicts. Actually, conflict is endemic within the workplaces. Most of the modern organisations do not have trade unions (Abbott 2006). Nonetheless, the organisations still witness workplace conflicts between the different group s of employees or within the management team. The managers ought to go by the saying Ã¢â¬Å"if you cannot beat them, join themÃ¢â¬ . Rather than trying to curb workplace conflict, which is hard to do away with, organisational leaders ought to bring back sanity by sharing the control of the organisation. Unitarists believe that using a single source of power might help to curb conflict, which may apply for small institutions (Abbott 2006). However, for bigger organisations, it is hard for the management team to use a single source of power, which underlines why organisations are working to remove the hierarchy that exists in their administration structure. The hierarchy not only leads to conflict, but also delays in the implementation of organisational policies. Therefore, pluralists offer the best solution to workplace conflicts, which is to share control of organisation between several leaders who would work on the various interests to reach at a common agreement with all the sta keholders. A single leader cannot manage to address all the employee demands and might end up enforcing his or her ideas, therefore, amplifying the conflict (Abbott 2006). The employer-employee relations can be said to have two crucial but different features. These features are the managerial relations and the market relations. The market relations entail the terms and conditions of employee recruitment and are economic in nature. The managerial relations are the most crucial in an organisation as they determine its success. One of the aspects of managerial relations is the collective bargaining (Bacon Blyton 2007). This aspect relates with the argument about the importance of trade unions in organisations. Organisations do not have time to get the opinion of every employee. Hence, trade unions would facilitate to gather the opinion of the employees and bring them on the table for the organisation to make decisive decisions. The pluralist managerial perspective advocates for collec tive bargaining, which is a valuable approach in organisation management. Collective bargaining offers a platform where all parties participate in a democratic decision-making process. In return, it motivates employees since they feel empowered (Bacon Blyton 2007). Contemporarily, employee empowerment is one of the strategies used in unleashing the employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ potential. In an environment where employees have to wait for commands from their leaders (like the one unitarists advocate for), they get demoralised and fail to commit themselves (Schmidt 2009). In such an instance, employees only work because they need money and they leave the organisation upon getting the first chance. The pluralist managerial perspective promotes a working environment that empowers employees giving them a chance to make decisions on matters affecting their organisation. This aspect arouses the feeling of co-ownership of the organisation in employees, and thus they commit to enhancing its growth. An organisation that use pluralist managerial approach is likely to cut down on operations cost with respect to employee turnover (Schmidt 2009). Since the approach empowers the employees, they feel comfortable and they commit themselves to organisational goals. Workplace conflict, if managed effectively, would promote innovativeness in an organisation, which underlines the reason why pluralists advocate for the management to manage the conflict but not rebuke and criticise it. In case of workplace conflict, bringing together all the stakeholders would help an organisation identify the underlying challenges and tensions. In return, the management would be able to come up with measures to mitigate their potential effects or address them before they happen (Bacon Blyton 2007). In a unitarist managerial approach, the management would be caught unprepared by challenges posed by workplace conflict. The approach believes that it is possible to do away with workplace conflicts. However, the strategies it gives appear more intimidating to employees. Therefore, instead of solving the conflicts, the strategies postpone them only to erupt at a time when the organisation is not prepared. On the other hand, the pluralist perspective employs conflict management strategies to address the challenges a conflict poses. It brings together all the parties involved in the conflict and helps them to come up with a consensus (Kessler Purcell 2003). For the modern organisations to prosper, they need to exploit the skills their diverse workforce possesses. Currently, organisations employ people with diverse cultural backgrounds. If these diverse cultures are brought together, they might help an organisation to come up with quality managerial practices, which can be achieved if an organisation accepts to accommodate a wide range of employee relations policies (Gennard Judge 2002). A Unitarist managerial perspective would not accommodate a range of policies since the system advocate fo r a single source of power. Embracing numerous policies would imply having numerous sources of power or a wide range of options to select from, which might lead to conflicts. Conversely, the pluralist managerial approach would accommodate for a range of employee relations policies. The approach acknowledges the potential benefits of workplace conflicts. Therefore, it would not mind to embrace the numerous policies even though they might lead to conflict within the diverse workforce. By bringing together the diverse experiences, an organisation would have a better chance of incorporating novel functions in its management practice thus improving its performance. Integrating the sentiments of every employee into the organisational goals would go a long way to curb workplace conflicts. This aspect underlines why the unitarist managerial perspective calls for common interests among the employees. Nevertheless, the perspective does not advice on how managers can come up with mutual intere sts or how to share mutual interests across the business institution. Storey (2000) posits, Ã¢â¬Å"Unitarism does not provide any guidelines for human resource, so that it can pursue unitarism effectivelyÃ¢â¬ (p.12). Individuals supporting unitarism perspective assume that employees are mature enough to reach conclusive decisions on how to integrate organisational and personal interests. This assumption makes the perspective weak, since it is hard for individuals with differing opinions to come up with an agreement without following a particular guideline. The pluralist perspective understands this aspect and that is why it advocates for collective bargaining as the alternative method to help in bringing the personal and organisational interests together. Unitarist managerial perspective holds that workplace conflicts are avoidable. Nevertheless, the unitarists fail to understand that employers are the root cause of the conflict. The unitarists advocate for employers to have abso lute powers in running the organisation. They do not realise that by granting the employers absolute powers, they exert unnecessary pressure on employees, which triggers the conflict. Instead of employees participating in the decision-making process, the employers force them to embrace the decisions made by the management even if they affect their rights and interests. In the end, the employees end up resisting the decisions leading to conflicts. For the organisation to curb conflicts, it has to ensure that all stakeholders take part in the decision-making process. Hence, only the pluralist managerial perspective can address workplace conflict, which is an inevitable phenomenon. Conclusion Managers follow different reference points when executing their management exercises. Two of such reference points are the unitarist and the pluralist managerial perspectives. The two perspectives have different opinions regarding organisational management. Unitarist holds that workplace conflict is avoidable. Therefore, the unitarist perspective calls for the establishment of a single source of power and integration of organisational and employee interests. They believe that workplace conflicts come because of different employee interests. Moreover, unitarists believe that employees do not need having trade unions, as the unions add to workplace conflicts. On the other hand, pluralist managerial perspective holds that workplace conflicts are inevitable. According to pluralists, it is hard for organisations to curb workplace conflicts. Therefore, the organisational management team needs to look for the opportunities that might help it to use the emerging conflicts to boost organisational growth. Pluralists view workplace conflicts in a positive dimension. They believe that the conflicts help the management to unravel the underlying tensions, therefore, helping them to come up with measures to mitigate them. Between the two perspectives, pluralist managerial perspective is th e better. 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Storey, J 2000, The Realities of Human Resou rce Management: Managing TheÃ Employment Relationship, Open University Press, Buckingham. This case study on Unitarist and Pluralist Managerial Perspectives was written and submitted by user Aubrianna Mccarthy to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.